Build Your Own Blockchain Part 1 — Creating, Storing, Syncing, Displaying, Mining, and Proving Work

I can actually look up how long I have by logging into my Coinbase account, looking at the history of the Bitcoin wallet, and seeing this transaction I got back in 2012 after signing up for Coinbase. Bitcoin was trading at about $6.50 per. If I still had that 0.1 BTC, that’d be worth over $500 at the time of this writing. In case people are wondering, I ended up selling that when a Bitcoin was worth $2000. So I only made $200 out of it rather than the $550 now. Should have held on.

Thank you Brian.

Despite knowing about Bitcoin’s existence, I never got much involved. I saw the rises and falls of the $/BTC ratio. I’ve seen people talk about how much of the future it is, and seen a few articles about how pointless BTC is. I never had an opinion on that, only somewhat followed along.

Similarly, I have barely followed blockchains themselves. Recently, my dad has brought up multiple times how the CNBC and Bloomberg stations he watches in the mornings bring up blockchains often, and he doesn’t know what it means at all.

And then suddenly, I figured I should try to learn about the blockchain more than the top level information I had. I started by doing a lot of “research”, which means I would search all around the internet trying to find other articles explaining the blockchain. Some were good, some were bad, some were dense, some were super upper level.

Reading only goes so far, and if there’s one thing I know, it’s that reading to learn doesn’t get you even close to the knowledge you get from programming to learn. So I figured I should go through and try to write my own basic local blockchain.

A big thing to mention here is that there are differences in a basic blockchain like I’m describing here and a ‘professional’ blockchain. This chain will not create a crypto currency. Blockchains do not require producing coins that can be traded and exchanged for physical money. Blockchains are used to store and verify information. Coins help incentive nodes to participate in validation but don’t need to exist.

The reason I’m writing this post is 1) so people reading this can learn more about blockchains themselves, and 2) so I can try to learn more by explaining the code and not just writing it.

In this post, I’ll show the way I want to store the blockchain data and generate an initial block, how a node can sync up with the local blockchain data, how to display the blockchain (which will be used in the future to sync with other nodes), and then how to go through and mine and create valid new blocks. For this first post, there are no other nodes. There are no wallets, no peers, no important data. Information on those will come later.

TL;DR

If you don’t want to get into specifics and read the code, or if you came across this post while searching for an article that describes blockchains understandably, I’ll attempt to write a summary about how a blockchains work.

At a super high level, a blockchain is a database where everyone participating in the blockchain is able to store, view, confirm, and never delete the data.

On a somewhat lower level, the data in these blocks can be anything as long as that specific blockchain allows it. For example, the data in the Bitcoin blockchain is only transactions of Bitcoins between accounts. The Ethereum blockchain allows similar transactions of Ether’s, but also transactions that are used to run code.

Slightly more downward, before a block is created and linked into the blockchain, it is validated by a majority of people working on the blockchain, referred to as nodes. The true blockchain is the chain containing the greatest number of blocks that is correctly verified by the majority of the nodes. That means if a node attempts to change the data in a previous block, the newer blocks will not be valid and nodes will not trust the data from the incorrect block.

Don’t worry if this is all confusing. It took me a while to figure that out myself and a much longer time to be able to write this in a way that my sister (who has no background in anything blockchain) understands.

If you want to look at the code, check out the part 1 branch on Github. Anyone with questions, comments, corrections, or praise (if you feel like being super nice!), get in contact, or let me know on twitter.

Step 1 — Classes and Files

Step 1 for me is to write a class that handles the blocks when a node is running. I’ll call this class Block. Frankly, there isn’t much to do with this class. In the __init__ function, we’re going to trust that all the required information is provided in a dictionary. If I were writing a production blockchain, this wouldn’t be smart, but it’s fine for the example where I’m the only one writing all the code. I also want to write a method that spits out the important block information into a dict, and then have a nicer way to show block information if I print a block to the terminal.

class Block(object):
  def __init__(self, dictionary):
  '''
    We're looking for index, timestamp, data, prev_hash, nonce
  '''
  for k, v in dictionary.items():
    setattr(self, k, v)
  if not hasattr(self, 'hash'): #in creating the first block, needs to be removed in future
    self.hash = self.create_self_hash()

  def __dict__(self):
    info = {}
    info['index'] = str(self.index)
    info['timestamp'] = str(self.timestamp)
    info['prev_hash'] = str(self.prev_hash)
    info['hash'] = str(self.hash)
    info['data'] = str(self.data)
    return info

  def __str__(self):
    return "Block<prev_hash: %s,hash: %s>" % (self.prev_hash, self.hash)

When we’re looking to create a first block, we can run the simple code.

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NPR Sunday Puzzle Solving, And Other Baby Name Questions

If you have a long drive and no bluetooth or aux cord to listen to podcasts, NPR is easily the best alternative. Truck drivers agree with this statement no matter their overall views. For me, this was the case when driving home to Milwaukee from Ann Arbor where I went to a college friend’s wedding.

While driving back I listened to NPR and heard Weekend Edition Sunday and their Sunday Puzzle pop up. If you haven’t heart of it before, at the end of every week’s episode they state a puzzle. Throughout the next week listeners can submit their answer and one random correct submitter is chosen to be recorded doing a mini puzzle on air.

The puzzle they stated for the week after the wedding was as follows:

Think of a familiar 6-letter boy’s name starting with a vowel. Change the first letter to a consonant to get another familiar boy’s name. Then change the first letter to another consonant to get another familiar boy’s name. What names are these?

They’ve already released the show for this question (I didn’t win of course) so I figure I can write about how I found out the answer!

Solving The Name Question

First step as always for these types of posts is gathering the required list of familiar boy’s names.  Searching on Google for lists will show that there are a ton of sites which exist try to SEO themselves for the money. When scraping, you should to poke around and make sure to choose the post that has the correct data as well as being the most simple to gather. I went with this one.

Since there’s only one page with the data, there’s no need to use the requests library to scrape the different pages. So clicking save html file to the folder you’re programming in is the best way to get the data.

The scraping code itself is pretty simple.

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

filename = 'boy_names.html'
vowels = ('A', 'E', 'I', 'O', 'U')

vowel_starters = []
consonant_starters = []

with open(filename, 'r') as file:
  page = file.read()
  html = BeautifulSoup(page.replace('\n',''), 'html.parser')
  for name_link in html.find_all("li", class_="p1"):
    name = name_link.text
    first_letter = name[0]
    if len(name) == 6:
      if first_letter in vowels:
        vowel_starters.append(name)
      else:
        consonant_starters.append(name)

for vname in vowel_starters:
  cname_same = []
  for cname in consonant_starters:
    if vname[1:] == cname[1:]:
      cname_same.append(cname)
  if cname_same:
    print vname
    for match in cname_same:
      print match

And the results are…

Austin, Justin, Dustin

Justin and Dustin rhyme which makes it more simple to realize that they match, but Austin isn’t exactly on the same page. If I didn’t have the code, zero chance I’d have gotten this correct.

That’s it right? Nope, I have all the code, I figured I should check to see if there’s a match for girls names with that same rules. All there was to do is save the popular girl names to the same folder, change the filename to ‘girl_names.html’, run the code, and we’ll get Ariana and Briana. A and B are the starting letters, and if Criana was a popular name (at this moment), we’d be good to for the full 3 name answers.

By going through this part, I came up with some other fun questions that could be answered with this list of names, and the rest of the post is about those.

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Guest Post – Learning R as an MBA Student

Hello!

If I’d wanted to really grab your attention, I should have title this article something like 13 Tips that Could Save You Years of Effort or A Guide to Becoming a Full Stack Developer in 2017. But I don’t know how to save you years of effort and I can’t write a comprehensive guide and, frankly, I am not interested in pretending like I do! So instead, you get a boring but honest title, and my thoughts as someone who is not an expert and who is not planning to make a career out of programming.

I’m Sara, Jack’s older sister, and I have the privilege of writing a guest post today! My background is not in anything related to programming – I am a CPA and spent over five years working as a public accountant, mostly in corporate tax.

So how does my background give me any right to be posting on this blog? I am now an MBA student and as part of my curriculum, I took a Business Statistics class which involved learning how to use R. I am not sure I can even say I had heard of R before taking this class, so there was steep learning curve for me.

I spent a lot of time thinking about what I could actually write in this post that might be useful to Jack’s readers, since you could all out-program me in your sleep. My first draft of this post involved a lot of specifics regarding the questions I was assigned and how I solved them, but that didn’t seem helpful to anyone. Plus, although I did well on my assignment, I’m not totally sure what I did right versus what I did wrong.

Instead, I’ve decided to share a few of the insights I gleaned from my brief experience as a programmer, and also some of the resources I used to teach myself as I completed my assignments. I’d like to note that just like I’m new to programming, I’m new to writing about programming, so I assume this post will be unlike most others on the subject.

If you’re like me and you are new to programming, hopefully this will help you get started. If I learned one thing, you can’t just be taught how to do this, but maybe this will give you some inspiration.

Play around, but make sure you have an idea / project in mind

Considering I’m such a rookie, the first thing I needed to learn how to do wasn’t writing code, but installing R.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A56PD8BSS0A

We then spent an entire class session following along as our professor demonstrated the very basics of R. This proved to be invaluable – I wouldn’t have even felt comfortable knowing where to even begin otherwise.

I think it’s important to note that although we were just playing with various functions, we were doing that in relation to one of the problems we’d been assigned. With his guidance, we were able to see how we should begin to work the problem, and how various functions could help meet our goal. It seemed to me that learning various functions through experimentation is useful, but you’ve got to make sure you’re working towards a goal as you do so.

The example we went over in class involved determining whether a specific pitcher for the Oakland As influenced the team’s ticket sales.

Following along with my professor, we named our data “As”, and then my very first lines into R looked like this:

> names(As)
[1] "TICKET" "OPP"    "POS"    "GB"     "DOW"    "TEMP"   "PREC"   "TOG"   
[9] "TV"     "PROMO"  "NOBEL"  "WKEND"  "OD"     "DH"    
> As(1,)
Error in As(1, ) : could not find function "As"
> As[1,]
  TICKET OPP POS GB DOW TEMP PREC TOG TV PROMO NOBEL WKEND OD DH
1  24415   2   5  1   4   57    0   2  0     0     0     0  1  0

As you can see, I made my first mistake right off the bat, using parentheses instead of brackets. After that first time, I don’t think I made that mistake again. Only through making the mistake and getting the error message did I figure out what I’d done wrong.

This proved to be the case time and time again as I made my way through the assignment, and I quickly learned mistakes are a way of life in programming. Somewhat infuriatingly, R returned just a blanket “error” message without much direction as to where I went wrong. I do think this helped me with my critical thinking, as it was up to me to figure out exactly where I had errored.

Bottom line: the time I spent tinkering around in R was when I learned the most. Figuring out how to correct errors was more instructive than getting it right the first time.

Time estimates are useless

In my career as a CPA, I could more or less predict how long various tasks would take. In fact, I usually had the previous year’s time reports to consult to see how much time we’d taken to complete the task in the past. I quickly found this is not the case with programming.

I sat down to work on my assignment on a beautiful summer Saturday, expecting it to take me a few hours maximum. By the time all was said and done, it took me probably ten hours to complete the three questions, spread over a few days. I talked to my classmates after we’d finished the assignment, and there was a wide array of time spend. People reported getting hung up on various parts, and there’s no telling how long it might take to work through the rough patches.

Maybe with more experience you get better at estimating how long projects take, but I have a strong hunch that you’ll often find you don’t know what you’re in for until you’re in the thick of it. I’m sure glad I started working on my assignment a week before it was due.

Don’t be embarrassed to google everything

If you’re having trouble with a specific function, chances are someone else out there has as well, and has asked the internet about it. Sometimes I didn’t even know what exactly it was that I was googling, but that generally didn’t matter as long as I hit the right keywords.

I often found myself reading helpful hints on various websites, and would cross-reference the notes I had from class. It quickly became clear to me that there’s no right way to do something. The way my professor showed an example in class was not how the people posting on Stackify perform the same task, and that’s ok. I actually think I learned more by seeing alternative ways of performing the same function.

I may be totally off base in saying this, but from all the googling I did, it seems to me that the exact lines of code one person uses to complete a project is as distinctive as their handwriting. I was not expecting programming to be such an individualized process.

I’m also not embarrassed to say that that’s how I solved a lot of my errors. This actually reminded me a lot of my accounting career. For many research projects, I often began by consulting google, and our firm definitely encouraged that.

Sleep on it

As I neared the end of my assignment, I got began to get very frustrated when something that I thought I’d mastered was not working out. I couldn’t figure out what I was doing wrong. I had more or less finished the question, and only had to insert a line of best fit into my scatter plot.

No matter what I did, that dang line would not appear.

As much as I wanted to finish the assignment that day, Jack wisely advised me that it would do no good to keep typing the same code, hoping that the line would magically generate. After a few minutes of doing exactly that, I concluded that he was correct. So… I went to sleep.

The next morning, I woke up and found my last few lines of code:

> plot(TICEKT,fit0$residual+fit0$fitted.values,pch=20)

Error in plot(TICEKT, fit0$residual + fit0$fitted.values, pch = 20)

Can you spot my error? Yep, “TICEKT” is not a word. (Is now a good time to note that I was also an English major?)

I corrected my error and produced this beautiful result:

I’m sure not all errors are that easily solvable with a good night of sleep, but I got lucky. I think this applies to lots of areas of life; if you leave things to ruminate a bit, you might just find a better answer. Or in my case, a line!

Always more to learn

I spoke to Jack about this assignment a little, and explained what it was I was asked to do. Until our conversation, it did not occur to me that there had been a lot of work on the front-end to get the data for our project ready to go.

For example, here’s a screenshot of a small portion of the data our professor provided:

(etc. etc. etc. etc.)

How did this data get here? When I was completing the assignment, I honestly didn’t care, and didn’t even think to care. I just felt incredibly smart for “mastering” R and successfully completing the assignment and making the beautiful plot I posted above. I was thinking to myself that I probably should have skipped this class and put myself directly into the more advanced Regressions class.

I came to my senses. Upon further reflection, it sure seems like compiling all this information is a heck of a lot harder than actually analyzing it! Jack then explained to me that all those articles I proofread for him about scraping data are doing exactly that. And those articles go so far over my head that hearing that brought be back to Earth about my only adequate capabilities.

There’s actually a term for this (credit to Jack for introducing me to it.) It’s called the Dunning-Kruger effect, which Wikipedia summarizes as when “persons of low ability suffer from illusory superiority when they mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is.”

Well here I am, a person of “low ability” who has seen the light. I know that I don’t know what I don’t know. I used to know nothing about programming, but I have now progressed to knowing next to nothing about programming. At the very least, Jack’s articles now make more sense to me!

Web Scraping with Python — Part Two — Library overview of requests, urllib2, BeautifulSoup, lxml, Scrapy, and more!

Welcome to part 2 of the Big-Ish Data general web scraping writeups! I wrote the first one a little bit ago, got some good feedback, and figured I should take some time to go through some of the many Python libraries that you can use for scraping, talk about them a little, and then give suggestions on how to use them.

If you want to check the code I used and not just copy and paste from the sections below, I pushed the code to github in my bigishdata repo. In that folder you’ll find a requirements.txt file with all the libraries you need to pip install, and I highly suggest using a virtualenv to install them. Gotta keep it all contained and easier to deploy if that’s the type of project you’re working on. On this front, also let me know if you’re running this and have any issues!

Overall, the goal of the scraping project in this post is to grab all the information – text, headings, code segments and image urls – from the first post on this subject. We want to get the headings (both h1 and h3), paragraphs, and code sections and print them into local files, one for each tag. This task is very simple overall which means it doesn’t require super advanced parts of the libraries. Some scraping tasks require authentication, remote JSON data loading, or scheduling the scraping tasks. I might write an article about other scraping projects that require this type of knowledge, but it does not apply here. The goal here is to show basics of all the libraries as an introduction.

In this article, there’ll be three sections. First, I’ll talk about libraries that execute http requests to obtain HTML. Second, I’ll talk about libraries that are great for parsing HTML to allow you to scrape the data. Third, I’ll write about libraries that perform both actions at once. And if you have more suggestions of libraries to show, let me know on twitter and I’ll throw them in here.

Finally, a couple notes:

Note 1: There are many different ways of web scraping. People like using different methods, different libraries, different code structures, etc. I understand that.  I recognize that there are other useful methods out there – this is what I’ve found to be successful over time.

Note 2: I’m not here to tell you that it’s legal to scrape every website. There are laws about what data is copyrighted, what data that is owned by the company, and whether or not public data is actually legal to scrape. You might have to check things like robots.txt, their Terms of Service, maybe a frequently asked questions page.

Note 3: If you’re looking for data, or any other data engineering task, get in contact and we’ll see what I can do!

Ok! That all being said, it’s time to get going!

Requesting the Page

The first section here is showing a few libraries that can hit web servers and ask nicely for the HTML.

For all the examples here, I request the page, and then save the HTML in a local file. The other note on this section is that if you’re going to use one of these libraries, this is part one of the scraping! I talked about that a lot in the first post of this series, how you need to make sure you split up getting the HTML, and then work on scraping the data from the HTML.

First library on the first section is the famous, popular, and very simple to use library, requests.

requests

Let’s see it in action.

import requests
url = "https://bigishdata.com/2017/05/11/general-tips-for-web-scraping-with-python/" 
params = {"limit": 48, 'p': 2} #used for query string (?) values
headers = {'user-agent' : 'Jack Schultz, bigishdata.com, contact@bigishdata.com'}
page = requests.get(url, headers=headers)
helpers.write_html('requests', page.text.encode('UTF-8'))

Like I said, incredibly simple.

Requests also has the ability to use the more advanced features like SSL, credentials, https, cookies, and more. Like I said, I’m not going to go into those features (but maybe later). Time for simple examples for an actual project.

Overall, even before talking about the other libraries below, requests is the way to go.

urllib / urllib2

Ok, time to ignore that last sentence in the requests section, and move on to another simple library, urllib2. If you’re using Python 2.X, then it’s very simple to request a single page. And by simple, I mean couple lines.

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General Tips for Web Scraping with Python

The great majority of the projects about machine learning or data analysis I write about here on Bigish-Data have an initial step of scraping data from websites. And since I get a bunch of contact emails asking me to give them either the data I’ve scraped myself, or help with getting the code to work for themselves. Because of that, I figured I should write something here about the process of web scraping!

There are plenty of other things to talk about when scraping, such as specifics on how to grab the data from a particular site, which Python libraries to use and how to use them, how to write code that would scrape the data in a daily job, where exactly to look as to how to get the data from random sites, etc. But since there are tons of other specific tutorials online, I’m going to talk about overall thoughts on how to scrape. There are three parts of this post – How to grab the data, how to save the data, and how to be nice.

As is the case with everything, programming-wise, if you’re looking to learn scraping, you can’t just read tutorials and think to yourself that you know how to program. Pick a project, practice grabbing the data, and then write a blog post about what you learned.

There definitely are tons of different thoughts on scraping, but these are the ones that I’ve learned from doing it a while. If you have questions, comments, and want to call me out, feel free to comment, or get in contact!

Grabbing the Data

The first step for scraping data from websites is to figure out where the sites keep their data, and what method they use to display the data on the browser. For this part of your project, I’ll suggest writing in a file named gather.py which should performs all these tasks.

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Product Mentions Update — Thoughts When Reviewing the Reddit Mentions

More than a few months ago, I created a Python script and a Rails website that tracks links to Amazon that people put in their comments and posts on Reddit. Clearly, a great name for this type of site is Product Mentions. Now that it’s been a while where the site is gathering the mentions, figure it’s time enough to look through the mentions and talk about interesting thoughts!

And before we get started, if you’re looking for information about Reddit comments on your site, blog, company, etc., shoot me an email and we can get started.

Technology!

Obviously the first thing to check is what Amazon product groups are the most mentioned on Reddit, and when you check the page, it’s incredibly clear that people love mentioning specific computer technology. Check out the frequency of product mentions of personal computers. Laptops on laptops, and apparently so many mentions of Acer brand laptops.

Books!

Since books are the second most mentioned product, it is also very interesting to see what type of subreddit’s are the ones to link books. And there are tons of them, but they’re much more specific subreddits.

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Popular Music Lyrics Have Become More Negative Over the Decades

This post is guest-written by Alex Lacey, a student at The Ohio State University. It was inspired by the ideas (and used some of the code) from this previous Big-Ish data post.

Popular music is constantly evolving, and the changes it has undergone over the last few decades are quite significant. In this project, I have investigated the changes in sentiment (the positivity/negativity) of popular music lyrics since the 1950s. I wanted to know: has the sentiment of song lyrics evolved along with other musical changes?

For this sentiment analysis, I used four open-source lexicons: AFINN, NRC, Bing, and Syuzhet, all of which were developed by separate research teams. There lexicons, which each comprise of a large set of words and their corresponding human-rated sentiment scores (the positivity/negativity of each word) are all available in the R syuzhet package. Each method works in the same way: a full block of text (which, in this case, represents all of the lyrics of a given song) is separated into individual words based on spacing and punctuation. Each word is examined for its presence in the lexicon; if it is present, then that word is assigned its corresponding score in the lexicon, but if it is not present, the word is not assigned a score. After that, all of the available word-scores in a block of text are averaged to produce a sentiment score for the full block of text.

But what data is necessary to answer this question? What exactly defines the “popularity” of music? This is a subjective concept, so I used two separate (albeit somewhat overlapping) definitions as a proxy for popularity: best-selling songs and best-selling artists.

Best-Selling Songs

For data about the most popular songs, I used a dataset containing the 100 top-selling songs of each year from 1956 to 2015. That dataset was created by Kaylin Walker, a Statistics Masters Student at Concordia College, and it can be downloaded here.
I analyzed every song in the dataset – 5100 total – with all four Sentiment Analysis methods discussed above. However, comparing the scores of songs for each method was not initially possible: the methods have different scales and some methods might rate songs more positively or negatively than others in general. To solve this problem, the sentiment values for each method were converted to z-scores, meaning that the full set of song-scores were centered (so that the mean sentiment score equals 0) and then scaled (so that the standard deviation equals 1). This allows for the four lexicons to be compared against each other accurately. As an representative example, here are the results from the AFINN lexicon, with a simple regression line:

afinn_top_100

There is a statistically significant downward trend here, and interestingly, it seems to be caused not by the majority of songs, but by a minority of songs in recent decades that are highly negative. There is a great increase in the variance in the sentiment of popular songs, primarily in the downward direction. It is quite interesting that for many years, not one popular song was more than 4 standard deviations below the average, but starting in the 1990’s, this became relatively commonplace.

These same trends are reflected in all four sentiment lexicons (all of them are statistically significant):

multiplot_songs

But perhaps the highly-negative songs in recent years weren’t actually the most popular; of the top 100 for any given year, most people don’t hear the bottom 50 very often, and likely won’t be able to recognize them. I thought that maybe the songs with negative lyrics populate the lower rankings of the Top 100, perhaps greatly enjoyed by a counter-culture but not by most people (in general, genres like punk and metal often fall into this category). Whether or not a devoted cult-following constitutes “popularity” is up for debate, but it would be unfair to make final conclusions about changes in popular music based only on counter-cultures. To test only the hyper-recognizable and undeniably “popular” songs, I decided to do the same analysis on specifically the Top 10 most popular songs from each year, as opposed to the Top 100. The z-scores of the results from the AFINN lexicon are shown in the graph below. I included differential opacity-weighting for the songs as well (the most popular songs are a darker shade).

afinn_top_10

The initial observation holds true; there is still a significant drop in the negativity of the most-negative songs after 1990. This trend was found with all four sentiment analysis methods:

multiplot_songs_top10 

Most Popular Artists

Along with the most-popular songs, I also investigated lyrics from the most-popular artists, using their entire discography. This could augment the prior analysis by providing a clearer picture of everything written by the most influential lyricists, not just their songs on the radio. The list of 100 best-selling artists came from this list on Wikipedia. The specific years, which were assigned by the Wikipedia list, refer to the date in which each artist released their first charted single.To obtain the lyrics of each artist, I scraped Genius.com using Python code by Jack Schultz in this Big-Ish data post, in which he did a very interesting analysis of country music. Here are the AFINN lexicon results, the size of which represent the amount of sales, and the colors of which represent the genre of music:

graph1
Roughly the same trend is observed as the analysis of the most popular songs (and in case you’re interested, the red dot that is six standard deviations below the average is Eminem). Just like before, here are the results for all four methods (note that to accurately portray most of the points, the graphs were all cropped, which resulted in the removal of a couple of artists above 1.75 standard deviations and a handful of artists below 1.75 standard deviations):

multiplot

However, in consideration of these results, it is very important to note that increasingly-negative lyrics is not necessarily a bad thing. In fact, I believe the opposite: this is a demonstration of popular art becoming more interesting, more honest, more meaningful, and a better representation of the human condition. Music has continuously diversified and reinvented itself, and this is reflected in the lyrics too.

In the future, I plan to also investigate the sentiment of these lyrics with IBM’s Watson, specifically the AlchemyLanguage API. This would be particularly useful because it is a non-lexicon-based method (it considers how the words are arranged, not just the words themselves). This can be quite important. For example, lets briefly examine the phrase “I am not happy”, which we should all agree is an overall negative statement. The lexicon-based methods would likely give that phrase a positive sentiment score, because the first three words are relatively neutral, and the last word is quite positive. On the other hand, more advanced methods (such as IBM’s Watson), are able to understand that “not happy” is the opposite of happy, and they would likely classify the phrase correctly. However, even with the lexicon-based methods used in this analysis, I can assume with an acceptable degree of confidence that the results will be the same due to the relatively large amount of data.